If the meals consist only of protid, glucid, fat and mineral salts without vitamins, the body and the animals can not survive.
Vitamins (or vitamins) are organic compounds that are essential for life. If the meals consist only of protid, glucid, fat and mineral salts without vitamins, the body and the animals can not survive.
While vitamins are essential for life, daily intake of vitamins is very low for the body, most vitamins are synthesized in plants and bacteria, not synthesized in the body, some multivitamins artificial methods.
Although, vitamins have so many uses, but with nutritional doses are antioxidants, protect the body. If the vitamin is higher than the recommended dose of 2 to 10 times, not only can not help but prevent cancer, but also the ability to cause disorders or even death.
Vitamins are classified according to their solubility, including vitamin D in vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, K); Water soluble vitamins (vitamins B1, B2, PP, B6, B12, C, P, folic acid, pantothenic acid).
Characteristics of vitamin soluble in oil
– In terms of structure, vitamin A is a complex first complex, plants without vitamin A but there are carotenes (precursors of vitamin A) because of the ability to turn into vitamin A when taken into the body.
– Effect: Vitamin A is involved in many oxidation processes in the body, maintaining the function of the epidermis, vitamin A deficiency, mucosal degradation, susceptible to bacterial, corneal susceptibility. dried and pus-infected eyes. Vitamin A is involved in the production of rhodopsin – the regulator of photosensitivity of the retina, so when vitamin A deficiency causes night blindness.
– Origins and needs: Vitamin A is found in vegetables (pre-vitamin A), rich in fats, fish oil. Daily demand is around 5,000 UI per day for adults.
– Structure: Vitamins are a group of compounds with sterols such as D2, D3, D4, D5, but the two most important nutrients are D2, D3.
– Effect: Vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the intestinal membrane, which affects the calcification. Deficiency of vitamin D in children causes rickets, in adults can cause soft bones or osteoporosis.
– Origins and needs: Vitamin D is found in fish liver, fat, butter, egg yolk. The daily demand is around 400 UI / day.
– Structure: Vitamin E consists of 3 substances a, b and g tocophenol have different chemical structure in place and the number of methyl group attached to the chromate nucleus;
– Effect: Vitamin E is involved in the regulation of reproduction, is a strong antioxidant. With vitamin E deficiency, the body’s production of embryos is affected, the degeneration of the body, lack of vitamin E can cause muscle atrophy, spinal cord degeneration, vitamin E is also associated with some cases of anemia. and reduced red blood cell count or erythrocyte failure in some poorly nursed or premature infants.
– Origins and Needs: Vitamin E is found in vegetable oils, lettuce, cabbage, butter, egg yolk. The daily requirement is about 10-30 mg. For children, the amount of vitamin is enough in the milk to ensure their needs.
– Structure: Vitamin K in nature have two types of vitamins K1 and K2, have the naphtoquinone. Artificially used menadione.
– Effect: Vitamin K plays a specific role in the coagulation mechanism, involved in the synthesis of prothrombin. Vitamin K deficiency often causes bleeding under the skin, muscles, in the digestive tract, reducing blood clotting.
– Origins and needs: Vitamin K is found in green vegetables, tomatoes, beans, liver, kidneys, gut microorganisms synthesized vitamin K. Daily requirement is less than 1mg / day (adults) and children ( 10-15mg / day).
Characteristics of water-soluble vitamins
– Structure: Vitamin C is the structure of a monosaccharide.
– Effect: Vitamin C has the effect of transporting hydrogen so it is involved in many metabolic processes in the body. Lack of vitamin C can cause hemorrhage, dizziness, bleeding gums, crow’s feet, pores, sometimes internal bleeding. Perhaps the most obvious role of vitamin C is to maintain cellular normalcy in certain tissues such as cartilage, teeth, and bone.
Intravenous laroscorbin (a form of vitamin C) is a high risk of drug-related complications and should not be mixed with any medication for the purpose of enhancing health effects.
– Origins and Needs: Vitamin C is found in many fruits, vegetables, fresh fruits, oranges, lemons, grapefruit, strawberry, and chili. The daily requirement is around 80-100mg / day. For heavy labor, it takes 120 mg, pregnant women need about 150 mg a day. In cold climates, vitamin C needs to rise to 140mg / day.
– Structure: Vitamin B1 consists of two rings of pyridine and thiazol.
– Effect: Vitamin B1 is needed for glucid metabolism, vitamin B1 deficiency, pyruvic acid will be stagnant in the blood, in tissues, causing disturbance of conduction of nerve impulses, disorders of heart activity and the process of conferring Swollen (edema), this vitamin deficiency caused numbness or beriberi.
– Origins and needs: Vitamin B1 is found in yeast, bran, milk, liver, egg yolk, some gut bacteria can synthesize vitamin B1.
– Structure: Vitamin B2 is the methylation of the isoalloxazine nucleus.
– Effect: Vitamin B2 is involved in many enzymes. Vitamin B2 deficiency will cause damage to the lining of the mouth, tongue cracking and ulcer, ear and hair loss.
– Origins and needs: Vitamin B2 is found in vegetables, cereals, yeast, milk, liver, muscle. The daily requirement is about 1.5mg / day.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
– Structure: Vitamin B6 is a derivative of pyridine.
– Effect: Vitamin B6 has many roles in amino acid metabolism. Vitamin B6 deficiency will cause skin disorders, nervous.
– Origin and needs: This vitamin is found in yeast, cereals, meat, liver, kidney. The daily requirement is about 2mg / day.